In orthogonal signaling, why does error-performance improve with higher di- mensional signaling? Why is free-space loss a function of wavelength? See Section 5. Describe four types of trade-offs that can be accomplished by using an error- correcting code. See Section 6. Of what use is the standard array in understanding a block code, and in eval- uating its capability? Why is the Shannon limit of See Section 8.
What are the consequences of the fact that the Viterbi decoding algorithm does not yield a posteriori probabilities? What is a more descriptive name for the Viterbi algorithm? Why do binary and 4-ary orthogonal frequency shift keying FSK manifest the same bandwidth-efficiency relationship? See Section 9. Describe the subtle energy and rate transformations of received signals: from data-bits to channel-bits to symbols to chips. See Sections 1. In a fading channel, why is signal dispersion independent of fading rapidity?
See Section I hope you find it useful to be challenged in this way. Now, let us describe the purpose of the book in a more methodical way.
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This second edition is intended to provide a comprehensive coverage of digital communication systems for se- nior level undergraduates, first year graduate students, and practicing engineers. Though the emphasis is on digital communications, necessary analog fundamentals are included since analog waveforms are used for the radio transmission of digital signals. The key feature of a digital communication system is that it deals with a fi- nite set of discrete messages, in contrast to an analog communication system in which messages are defined on a continuum.
The objective at the receiver of the digital system is not to reproduce a waveform with precision; it is instead to deter- mine from a noise-perturbed signal, which of the finite set of waveforms had been sent by the transmitter. In fulfillment of this objective, there has arisen an impres- sive assortment of signal processing techniques.
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The book develops these techniques in the context of a unified structure. The structure, in block diagram form, appears at the beginning of each chapter; blocks in the diagram are emphasized, when appropriate, to correspond to the subject of that chapter. Major purposes of the book are to add organization and structure to a field that has grown and continues to grow rapidly, and to insure awareness of the "big picture" even while delving into the details.
Signals and key processing steps are traced from the information source through the transmitter, channel, receiver, and ultimately to the information sink. Signal transformations are organized according to nine functional classes: Formatting and source coding, Baseband signaling, Band- pass signaling, Equalization, Channel coding, Muliplexing and multiple access, Spreading, Encryption, and Synchronization.
Throughout the book, emphasis is placed on system goals and the need to trade off basic system parameters such as signal-to-noise ratio, probability of error, and bandwidth expenditure. Some basic ideas of random variables and the additive white Gaussian noise AWGN model are re- viewed. Also, the relationship between power spectral density and autocorrelation, and the basics of signal transmission through linear systems are established. Chap- ter 2 covers the signal processing step, known as formatting, in order to render an information signal compatible with a digital system.
Chapter 3 emphasizes base- band signaling, the detection of signals in Gaussian noise, and receiver optimiza- tion. Chapter 5 deals with link analysis, an im- portant subject for providing overall system insight; it considers some subtleties that are often missed.
Chapters 6, 7, and 8 deal with channel coding—a cost- effective way of providing a variety of system performance trade-offs. Chapter 6 emphasizes linear block codes, Chapter 7 deals with convolutional codes, and Chap- ter 8 deals with Reed-Solomon codes and concatenated codes such as turbo codes. It also treats the important area of coded modulation, particularly trellis-coded modulation.
Chapter 10 deals with synchronization for digital systems. It covers phase-locked loop implementation for achieving carrier synchronization. It covers bit synchronization, frame synchronization, and network synchronization, and it introduces some ways of performing synchronization using digital methods.
Chapter 11 treats multiplexing and multiple access. It explores techniques that are available for utilizing the communication resource efficiently. Chapter 12 intro- duces spread spectrum techniques and their application in such areas as multiple access, ranging, and interference rejection. This technology is important for both military and commercial applications. Chapter 13 deals with source coding which is a special class of data formatting.
Both formatting and source coding involve digiti- zation of data; the main difference between them is that source coding additionally involves data redundancy reduction.
Rather than considering source coding imme- diately after formatting, it is purposely treated in a later chapter so as not to inter- rupt the presentation flow of the basic processing steps. It includes some classical concepts, as well as a class of systems called public key cryptosystems, and the widely used E-mail encryption software known as Pretty Good Privacy PGP. Chapter 15 deals with fading chan- nels. Here, we deal with applications, such as mobile radios, where characteriza- tion of the channel is much more involved than that of a nonfading one.
The design of a communication system that will withstand the degradation effects of fading can be much more challenging than the design of its nonfading counterpart.
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In this chapter, we describe a variety of techniques that can mitigate the effects of fading, and we show some successful designs that have been implemented. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with Fourier methods and convolu- tion. It also assumed that the reader has a knowledge of basic probability and has some familiarity with random variables. Appendix B builds on these disciplines for a short treatment on statistical decision theory with emphasis on hypothesis testing—so important in the under- standing of detection theory.
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A new section, Appendix E, has been added to serve as a short tutorial on s-domain, z-domain, and digital filtering. If the book is used for a two-term course, a simple partitioning is suggested; the first seven chapters can be taught in the first term, and the last eight chapters in the second term.
If the book is used for a one-term introductory course, it is sug- gested that the course material be selected from the following chapters: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, I have re- ceived an abundance of such assistance, for which I am deeply grateful. For their generous help, I want to thank Dr. Andrew Viterbi, Dr. Chuck Wheatley, Dr. Ed Tiedeman, Dr. Joe Odenwalder, and Serge Willinegger of Qualcomm. Intersymbol interferences, signal shaping, receiver filter 4.
Detection of radio communication signals, hypothesis testing, AWGN channel 5. Spread spectrum systems I - rake receiver, synchronization 9. Communication channel characteristics, equalizers, nonlinear channels, UWB communications Block and convolutional codes, cyclic codes, turbo codes, concatenated codes, LDPC codes Complex envelope 2.
ISI 3. Optimal receiver 4. Synchronization 5. CDMA 6. OFDM - principle 7. Radio channel 8. RF chain 9. UWB principles Coding The aim of the course is to make students familiar with the wireless communication link, representation of information, signal detection, methods of intersymbol interference supression, advanced coding techniques coding, fading channel characteristics, amplitude and phase keying and with properties of communication systems OFDM, CDMA and UWB. Specification of controlled education, way of implementation and compensation for absences.
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