Recent LPA experiments are presented which have greatly improved beam quality and efficiency, rendering them appropriate for compact high-quality photon sources based on Thomson scattering. It is shown that control of the scattering laser, including plasma guiding, can increase photon production efficiency. Lastly, the plasma structure can decelerate the electron beam after photon production, reducing the size of shielding required for beam disposal.
Together, these techniques provide a path to a compact photon source system.
This article is a review of several accelerator—reactor interface issues and nuclear fuel cycle applications of acceleratordriven subcritical systems. Low-background experiments with stable ion beams are an important tool for putting the model of stellar hydrogen, helium, and carbon burning on a solid experimental foundation. In the present contribution, the status of the project for a higher-energy underground accelerator is reviewed. Two tunnels of the Felsenkeller underground site in Dresden, Germany, are currently being refurbished for the installation of a 5 MV high-current Pelletron accelerator.
Construction work is on schedule and expected to complete in August Accelerator driven reactors and nuclear waste management projects in the Czech Republic. The Czech Republic is almost the only country in the central Europe which continues with the construction of nuclear power reactors. Its small territory and dense population causes public worries concerning the disposal of the spent nuclear fuel. The Czech nuclear scientists and the power companies and the nuclear industries are therefore looking for alterative solutions.
The Los Alamos ATW project had received a positive response in the Czech mass-media and even in the industrial and governmental quarters. The recent scientific symposium '' Accelerator driven reactors and nuclear waste management'' convened at the Liblice castle near Prague, The Czech nuclear scientists and the power companies and the nuclear industries are therefore looking for alternative solutions. Evaluation of nuclear-reactor-produced iodine Iodine has such great potential for nuclear medicine that all possible production methods should be considered.
In this report, an experimental study related to I production at a high-intensity fast-flux reactor using the reaction Xe n,2n Xe is considered.
The conclusion is that I could be made in small quantities and the cost would be higher than the cyclotron methods presently used. Plastids and mitochondria have many protein complexes that include subunits encoded by organelle and nuclear genomes.
- Nuclear Power Akira OMOTO DIR-NENP.
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In animal cells, compensatory evolution between mitochondrial and nuclear -encoded subunits was identified and the high mitochondrial mutation rates were hypothesized to drive compensatory evolution in nuclear genomes. In plant cells, compensatory evolution between plastid and nucleus has rarely been investigated in a phylogenetic framework. To investigate plastid— nuclear coevolution, we focused on plastid ribosomal protein genes that are encoded by plastid and nuclear genomes from 27 Geraniales species.
Substitution rates were compared for five sets of genes representing plastid- and nuclear -encoded ribosomal subunit proteins targeted to the cytosol or the plastid as well as nonribosomal protein controls. Our analyses revealed strong signals of cytonuclear coevolution between plastid- and nuclear -encoded subunits, in which nonsynonymous substitutions in CpRP and NuCpRP tend to occur along the same branches in the Geraniaceae phylogeny.
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This coevolution pattern cannot be explained by physical interaction between amino acid residues. The forces driving accelerated coevolution varied with cellular compartment of the sequence.
In addition, the many indels identified in plastid rRNA genes in Geraniaceae may have contributed to changes in plastid subunits. To investigate plastid- nuclear coevolution, we focused on plastid ribosomal protein genes that are encoded by plastid and nuclear genomes from 27 Geraniales species. Recent developments of cyclotron produced radionuclides for nuclear cardiology. For over a decade myocardial perfusion imaging with thallium, a cyclotron product, has been routinely used in clinical medicine. New metabolically active I labeled radiopharmaceuticals, including alkyl and phenyl fatty acids, and norepinephrine analogs, have been developed and are undergoing clinical trials.
Fab' fragments of monoclonal antibodies to cardiac myosin have been labeled with indium In and are undergoing clinical evaluation for imaging myocardial infarcts.
Nuclear geophysics and its applications.
Monoclonal antibodies to platelets, fibrin, and the thrombolytic agent, tissue plasminogen activator TPA , have recently been labeled with In. Together these developments in radiotracers and instrumentation should have a significant impact on the future of cardiovascular nuclear medicine. This manuscript will discuss developments in single photon emitting radiotracers for myocardial imaging.
A method for identifying stopped pions in a high-resolution scintillator bar detector is presented. The result is produced from the measured spectrum of reconstructed momentum-transfer Q 2. The consistency of this result with recent reanalyses of previous bubble-chamber experiments is discussed. Mitochondrial- nuclear interactions and accelerated compensatory evolution: evidence from the primate cytochrome C oxidase complex.
Accelerated rates of mitochondrial protein evolution have been proposed to reflect Darwinian coadaptation for efficient energy production for mammalian flight and brain activity. However, several features of mammalian mtDNA absence of recombination, small effective population size, and high mutation rate promote genome degradation through the accumulation of weakly deleterious mutations.
Here, we present evidence for "compensatory" adaptive substitutions in nuclear DNA- nDNA encoded mitochondrial proteins to prevent fitness decline in primate mitochondrial protein complexes. We show that high mutation rate and small effective population size, key features of primate mitochondrial genomes, can accelerate compensatory adaptive evolution in nDNA-encoded genes.
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We combine phylogenetic information and the 3D structure of the cytochrome c oxidase COX complex to test for accelerated compensatory changes among interacting sites. Physical interactions among mtDNA- and nDNA-encoded components are critical in COX evolution; amino acids in close physical proximity in the 3D structure show a strong tendency for correlated evolution among lineages. Only nuclear -encoded components of COX show evidence for positive selection and adaptive nDNA-encoded changes tend to follow mtDNA-encoded amino acid changes at nearby sites in the 3D structure.
This bias in the temporal order of substitutions supports compensatory weak selection as a major factor in accelerated primate COX evolution. Transmutation prospect of long-lived nuclear waste induced by high-charge electron beam from laser plasma accelerator. Photo-transmutation of long-lived nuclear waste induced by a high-charge relativistic electron beam e-beam from a laser plasma accelerator is demonstrated. A collimated relativistic e-beam with a high charge of approximately nC is produced from high-intensity laser interaction with near-critical-density NCD plasma.
Presentation on theme: "Nuclear Power Akira OMOTO DIR-NENP"— Presentation transcript:
Such e-beam impinges on a high-Z convertor and then radiates energetic bremsstrahlung photons with flux approaching per laser shot. Taking a long-lived radionuclide Sn as an example, the resulting transmutation reaction yield is the order of per laser shot, which is two orders of magnitude higher than obtained from previous studies. It is found that at lower densities, a tightly focused laser irradiating relatively longer NCD plasmas can effectively enhance the transmutation efficiency. Furthermore, the photo-transmutation is generalized by considering mixed-nuclide waste samples, which suggests that the laser- accelerated high-charge e-beam could be an efficient tool to transmute long-lived nuclear waste.
Parametric emittance measurements of electron beams produced by a laser plasma accelerator. Barber, S. Laser plasma accelerators LPA offer an exciting possibility to deliver high energy, high brightness electrons beams in drastically smaller distance scales than is typical for conventional accelerators. As such, LPAs draw considerable attention as potential drivers for next generation light sources and for a compact linear collider.
In order to asses the viability of an LPA source for a particular application, the brightness of the source should be properly characterized. In this paper, we present charge dependent transverse emittance measurements of LPA sources using both ionization injection and shock induced density down ramp injection, with the latter delivering smaller transverse emittances by a factor of two when controlling for charge density. The single shot emittance method is described in detail with a discussion on limitations related to second order transport effects.
The direct role of space charge is explored through a series of simulations and found to be consistent with experimental observations. The Dresden Felsenkeller shallow-underground accelerator laboratory for nuclear astrophysics - Status and first physics program. An intercomparison exercise using the same High-Purity Ge detector at several sites has shown that, with a combination of 45 m rock overburden, as can be found in the Felsenkeller underground site in Dresden, and an active veto against the remaining muon flux, in a typical nuclear astrophysics setup a background level can be achieved that is similar to the deep underground scenario as in the Gran- Sasso underground laboratory, for instance.
It was estimated that the rock overburden at the place of the future ion accelerator is equivalent to m of water. The maximum muon flux measured was 2. Work on an additional radio-frequency ion source on the high voltage terminal is in progress and far advanced. The status of the project and. How an integrated change programme has accelerated the reduction in high hazard nuclear facilities at Sellafield.
For over five decades the Sellafield Site has been central to the UK's nuclear programme. When Decommissioning commenced in the late 's the site focus at that time was on commercial reprocessing and waste management. This paper will describe the management success by the Site owners in delivering a successful change programme.
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The paper will explain how the site has transitioned to the INPO Standard Nuclear Performance Model SNPM and how through the use of a change maturity matrix has contributed to the accelerated reduction in high risk high hazard nuclear facilities. The paper will explain in detail how the Decommissioning Programme Office has facilitated and coordinated the Governance and assured delivery of the change plan and how successful application of visual management has aided the communication of its progress.
Finally, the paper will discuss how the Delivery Schedules have proved critical for presenting the change plan to Key Stakeholders, Government Owners and Powerful Regulators. Overall, this paper provides an insight into how a massive change programme is being managed within one of the world's highest regulated industries. Using a Tandem Pelletron accelerator to produce a thermal neutron beam for detector testing purposes. Active thermal neutron detectors are used in a wide range of measuring devices in medicine, industry and research.
For many applications, the long-term stability of these devices is crucial, so that very well controlled neutron fields are needed to perform calibrations and repeatability tests. This paper shows thermal neutron field production and reproducibility characteristics over few days. Measurements and effects of backstreaming ions produced at bremsstrahlung converter target in Dragon-I linear induction accelerator. Positive ions released from x-ray converter target impacted by electron beam of millimeter spot size can be trapped and accelerated in the incident beam's potential well.
As the ions move upstream, the beam will be pinched first and then defocused at the target. Four Faraday cups are used to collect backstreaming ions produced at the bremsstrahlung converter target in Dragon-I linear induction accelerator LIA. The discussions show that the backstreaming positive ions will not affect the electron beam focusing and envelope radius in Dragon-I LIA. The theoretical and experimental results of electron beam envelope with ions and without ions are also presented.
Spent Nuclear Fuel Inventory. This study describes a conceptual design of an accelerator -driven subcritical ADS system for disposing of this SNF inventory by utilizing the tons of MAs inventory and a fraction of the plutonium inventory for energy production, and transmuting some long-lived fission products. An ADS system with a homogeneous subcritical fission blanket was first examined. The blanket has a liquid mobile fuel using LBE as the fuel carrier.
Related Design Measures - Impl. of Safeguards at Future Water-Cooled Nucl. Powerplants (IAEA TRS-392)
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